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Forensic Footwear Evidence

Gebonden Engels 2016 9781439887271
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- Provides historical and foundational information about footwear impression evidence
- Details best practices regarding the detection, recovery, and examination of impression evidence
- Explains various levels of association that can be established between a suspect’s footwear and scene of crime footwear impressions
- Presents real case examples to illustrate various applications
- Gives extensive bibliographical references
- Includes over 300 color photographs and illustrations

The utilization of footwear impression evidence continues to evolve with new materials, equipment and techniques, providing an increased ability to detect, record, enhance, and examine this form of evidence. Recently developed technology now allows investigators to more efficiently or, in some cases, instantly link multiple crime scenes where impressions have been produced by the same perpetrator.

Forensic Footwear Evidence covers a wide range of relevant topics, including historical references, general information about the formation and investigative use of footwear impressions, and the best practices and considerations that apply to the recovery, enhancement, and examination of this evidence. Drawing on the author’s 44 years of acquired knowledge and experience, it is the most comprehensive and authoritative text published to date on this topic.

Highlighted topics covered within the book include
- Three chapters covering footwear manufacturing
- Shoe grading, sizing, and the forensic application of sizing information
- Examination and reporting procedures
- Casting impressions in snow
- Barefoot evidence
- Topics of interest for both prosecution and defense attorneys

The book includes more than 300 color photographs and illustrations throughout, as well as case examples that apply theoretical concepts to the real world. A single, complete reference on the subject, Forensic Footwear Evidence presents a wide range wealth of information that will serve as an invaluable reference to novice and experienced examiners, crime scene technicians, investigators, and prosecution and defense counselors alike.


Aantal pagina's:558
Uitgever:CRC Press


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Over William Bodziak

William J. Bodziak holds an MS in forensic science and has spent over 44 years in the field of footwear and tire evidence. He created the first technical conferences on footwear and tire evidence held in 1983 and 1984, taught the subsequent forensic footwear courses at the FBI Academy, and organized the first International Symposium on Footwear and Tire evidence at the FBI Academy in 1994. He has instructed classes in the forensic examination of footwear and tire evidence on over 150 occasions throughout the United States and in other countries and has provided testimony on over 500 occasions in the US, Canada, South Africa, Israel, Guam, Saipan, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands. He has written three other books, several book chapters, and many journal articles. He has been an active member and participated in numerous professional organizations throughout his career.

Andere boeken door William Bodziak


General Information about Footwear Evidence
Footwear Evidence Past and Present
What Footwear Impressions Contribute to Investigations
How Effectively is Impression Evidence Used?
The Formation of Footwear Impressions
Variations in Impression Detail
The Effect Recovery Methods Have on Detail
General Guidelines for the Recovery of Footwear Evidence
The Age of Impressions
The Scene of the Crime and Preservation of Evidence
General Search Methods
Gait Measurements
Key Points

Photographing Footwear Evidence
Cameras of the Past
The Digital Camera Emerges
The Camera and Its Resolution
File Format Choices
Storage and Management of Images
General Crime Scene Photography
Examination Quality Photography
Inversion Effect
Key Points

Casting Three-Dimensional Impressions
Why Make Casts?
From Plasters to Stones
Producing Plasters and Dental Stone from Gypsum
Water to Powder Ratio (W:P)

Dimensional Stability
Obtaining Dental Stone
Other Casting Materials
Premeasuring Dental Stone in Zip-Lock Bags
Preparing the Footwear Impression for Casting
Fixatives and Release Agents
Mixing Dental Stone in Zip-Lock Bags
Mixing Dental Stone in a Container
Pouring the Mixture
After You Pour the Cast
Lifting the Cast
Air-Drying the Cast
Cleaning the Cast
Shipping and Storing
Key Points

Recovering Impressions in Snow
About Snow
Photographing Snow Impressions
Highlighting and Coating Impressions to Increase Contrast
Snow Print Powder™
Casting Methods and Materials
Key Points

Treatment and Lifting of Two-Dimensional Footwear Impressions
Types of Two-Dimensional Impressions
Why Lifting Can Be Complex
Electrostatic Lifting
Static Cling Film
Gelatin Lifters
Adhesive Lifters
Powdering Impressions
Lifting Impressions with Mikrosil
Lifting with Dental Stone
Indented Impressions on Paper
Key Points

Blunt Force Pattern Injuries
The Mechanics of Blunt Force Pattern Injuries
Relevance of Blunt Force Pattern Injuries
Replication Limitations and Accuracy
Recovering Blunt Force Pattern Evidence
Key Points

Enhancement of Footwear Impression Evidence
Forensic Photography and Specialized Lighting
Physical Methods
Using Chemical Reagents to Detect and/or Enhance Impressions
Chemical Reagents and Methods for Enhancement of Bloody Impressions
Effects of Reagents on DNA
Sequencing of Enhancement Techniques for Bloody Impressions
Using Alginate Materials to Lift Bloody Impressions
Chemical Reagents and Methods for Enhancement of Non-Blood Impressions
Digital Enhancement
Key Points

Sizing Feet and Footwear
Origins of Shoe Sizing
Shoe Sizing Systems
Shoe Size Conversion Charts
US Women’s Sizes
Mismated Feet
Measuring a Person’s Feet to Determine Shoe Size
Variations in the Physical Dimensions of Identically Sized Shoes
Determining What Size Shoe a Person Wears
Can a Person Wear an Extremely Different Size Shoe?

Determining Shoe Size Based Only On Heel-to-Toe Measurements
Grading Sizes during Shoe Design
Bell Curves and Size Distributions
Shoe Size and Stature
Determining Shoe Sizes of Worn or Degraded Footwear
Size Code Schedule
Key Points

Manufacturing: Producing and Texturing Molds
The World Footwear Market
Producing Outsole Molds
Industry Open and Proprietary Molds
The Addition of Texture to Mold Surfaces
Forensic Applications of Texture
An Unusual Case Application Regarding Texture
Assistance from Manufacturers and Other Sources
Key Points

Manufacturing: Molding Processes and Modification of Outsoles
The Compression-Molding Process
Mold Warp
Solid Compression Molded Outsoles
Microcellular Outsoles
Injection Molding
Open Pour Molding
Siped Outsoles
Key Points

Manufacturing: Cutting Outsoles from Sheet Stock
Die Cutting from Sheet Stock
Calendered Material
The Wellman Outsole Cutting Process
Assembling the Wellman Cut Calendered Outsoles
Variations in Wellman Cut Outsoles
Determining If a Shoe Outsole Is Molded or Cut
Key Points

Outsole Design and Dimension
Outsole Design
Physical Size of the Design
Design–Size Relationship
Texture on Outsoles in Relation to Design and Physical Size
Additional Design Aspects of Interest
What You Can Conclude from the Pair of Shoes You Are Examining
Forensic Significance of Design and Size
What Does "Design and Size" Mean to the Defense and Prosecution?
Are Any Shoes "One of a Kind" When New?
Classic Designs and Retro Designs
Counterfeits, Knockoffs, and Look-a-Likes
Similar Designs
Are the Shoes You Are Examining Counterfeits?
Determining Shoe Size from Impressions When No Shoes Are Recovered
Key Points

Evaluation of General Wear
Basic Principles Regarding Evaluation of General Wear
From New Soles to Worn Soles: Factors that Influence Outsole Wear
Differences in Wear between an Individual’s Shoes
Factors Affecting the Replication of General Wear Features
Examination of the Position and Degree of General Wear
Wear Patterns
Exclusions Based on General Wear
Is General Wear a Basis for Identification?
Extreme Wear Can Produce Randomly Acquired Characteristics
Are Shoes of Value for Comparison Months after the Crime?
Does General Wear Have Any Value When No Shoes Are Recovered?
Studies Concerning Wear
Key Points

Randomly Acquired Characteristics
Random and Randomly Acquired Characteristics
Examples of Randomly Acquired Characteristics (RACs)
The Weight or Value of Randomly Acquired Characteristics
Quantitative versus Qualitative Aspects
Confirmation as Random
Footwear Compared to "Points" on Fingerprints
Replication or Lack of Replication of Randomly Acquired Characteristics
Changes in Randomly Acquired Characteristics After Additional Wear
Chances of Another Shoe Having the Same Randomly Acquired Characteristic
How Many RACs Are Necessary for Identification?
Key Points

Known Footwear and Known Impression Standards
Elimination Impressions or Photographs
Examination Requires the Actual Shoes
Obtaining Known Shoes from a Suspect
Shoes of Additional Perpetrators
Shoeboxes, Receipts, Photographs and Other Options
Treatment of Seized Footwear
Documentation of Seized Footwear
Basic Information about Known Impressions
Methods of Producing Known Impressions
Two-Dimensional Known Impressions
Three-Dimensional Known Impressions
Methods Not Recommended
Key Points

Examination of Crime Scene Impressions with Known Footwear
Basis for Comparison
Fundamental Information
Equipment and Comparison Techniques
General Scientific Method

Subjective or Objective?
Method of Comparison
Range of Conclusions Scales
The SWGTREAD Range of Conclusions Standard
Identifications Involving Footwear
Contacting a Manufacturer for Sales and Distribution Information
Exclusion and Inclusion
Key Points

Written Reports and Court Testimony
Purpose of Reports
Report Writing Practices
Report Contents
Report Example
Written Conclusions
Additional Information or Statements Regarding Conclusions
The Footwear Examiner in Court
Pretrial Meetings
Last Minute Examinations
The Use of Demonstrable Aids
Key Points

Impressions of the Foot
Forensic Research
Nonforensic Research
The Human Foot
Recovery of Barefoot Evidence
Obtaining Known Standards
Examination Considerations
Examination of Naked or Sock-Clad Impressions
Association of Footwear with Feet
Estimating Height Based on Dimensions of Barefoot or Footwear Impressions
Those Who Conduct These Examinations
Key Points

Some Case Examples
A West Coast Homicide
A Controlled Population Class Characteristic Case
A Wellman Calendered Outsole Case
Bloody Heel Mark
Linoleum Latent Blood Mark
Random Cut or Something Else?

Topics Regarding The Prosecution and the Defense
Admissibility of Footwear Evidence in Court
Qualifications of the Footwear Expert
Unqualified Opinions of Nonexperts
Is a Qualified Expert Needed?
Relevance of Footwear Evidence
Scientific Conclusions and Opinions
Discovery and the Need for Independent Examination
Completeness and Integrity of Provided Photographic Images
Inadequately Recovered Evidence
Reasons to Retain an Expert
Working with the Defense

Forensic Organizations and Meetings
Working Groups for Shoe Print and Tire Tread Evidence
Publications and Forensic Journals
Forensic Footwear Databases
Labels and Date Information
Bar Codes
Website Resources
Materials and Supply Sources

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